Ex2 Chapter 2 - Static Routing, CDP

Role of Router
1.  Determine best path to send packets.
2.  Forward packets toward their destinations.

Router Serial Connections
Cisco routers support the following five serial standards.
1.  EIA/TIA-232
2.  EIA/TIA-449
3.  V.35
4.  X.21
5.  EIA-530

A router has a DB-60 serial port that can support all five standards.

When working with any router interfaces there are specific commands that can help you check configurations and troubleshoot issues that arise.  The following commands are very useful.
show ip route
show interfaces | show interface s0/0
show running-config
show ip interfaces brief
Which command(s) will show you the Layer 2 MAC address of the FastEthernet port on a router?
Using the IOS to determine the DCE and DTE ends can be achieved by issued
show controllers s0/0

Routing Table
It is important that you can read the routing table and be able to use the information for troubleshooting.  The routing table generally only contains networks and not individual hosts.  It also explains how it learned its routes.

Changing and IP Address
1.  Enter interface
2.  Shutdown interface
3.  Issue no ip address
4.  Enter new IP address
5.  Turn on interface

Cisco Discovery Protocol
Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a Cisco-proprietary information sharing protocol that works on Cisco only devices. 
CDP shares information with other Cisco CDP enabled, directly connected devices
Gives Summary of information about neighbouring devices.
CDP operates at Layer 2 only, which makes it protocol independent at Layer 3.
Discover neighbors regardless of the layer 1 (Physical Layer) & Layer 3 (Network Layer) Protocols are Used.
show cdp neighbors
show cdp neighbors detail
By default CDP is automatically enabled. 
The following information is shared through CDP: Device Identifier (host name), Address List, Port Identifier (port directly connected to on device), Capabilities List (identifies if it’s a router or switch), Platform (hardware platform).

To disable CDP there are two options.  The first option is to globally disable CDP and that is performed by issuing:
Router(config)# no cdp run  
To disable an interface from sending CDP information issue:
Router(config-if)# no cdp enable

Although CDP is necessary for some management applications, CDP should still be disabled in some instances.
Disable CDP globally if
• CDP is not required at all.
• The device is located in an insecure environment.

Show CDP commands
Router#show cdp
Global CDP information:
        Sending CDP packets every 60 seconds
        Sending a holdtime value of 180 seconds
        Sending CDPv2 advertisements is  enabled

Router#show cdp neighbors
Capability Codes: R - Router, T - Trans Bridge, B - Source Route Bridge
                  S - Switch, H - Host, I - IGMP, r - Repeater
Device ID        Local Intrfce     Holdtme    Capability  Platform  Port ID
lab-7206         Eth 0              157          R        7206VXR   Fas 0/0/0
lab-as5300-1     Eth 0              163          R        AS5300    Fas 0
lab-as5300-2     Eth 0              159          R        AS5300    Eth 0
lab-3621         Eth 0              140         R S       3631-telcoFas 0/0
008024 2758E0    Eth 0              132          T        CAT3000   1/2
Router#show cdp neighbors detail
Device ID: R3
Entry address(es):
IP address:
Platform: Cisco 3640, Capabilities: Router Switch IGMP
Interface: FastEthernet1/0, Port ID (outgoing port): FastEthernet0/0
Holdtime : 125 sec

Version :
Cisco IOS Software, 3600 Software (C3640-JK9S-M), Version 12.4(16), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport
Copyright (c) 1986-2007 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Wed 20-Jun-07 11:43 by prod_rel_team

advertisement version: 2
VTP Management Domain: '
Duplex: full

Route Summarization

The smaller the routing table the quicker a router can make a decision.  If networks are
designed logically and physically well then they utilize route summarization.

Show the summarization of,, into

Default Routes
Imagine trying to set up a routing table on a router connected to the Internet.  The routing table would need to be full of every possible route if you wanted to easily connect to any website.  Fortunately that is not the case and the existence of a default route helps us fix this problem.  A default route is the simple concept of, if I a router receive a packet addressed a destination network I have no knowledge of then send it out this interface. 
The instruction saying which interface to send an unknown destination network is the default route.  To add a default route issue:
Router(config)# ip route s0/0
Special Commands
 # logging synchronous
sets the system not to interrupt the line of code you’re typing when a message pops up unexpectedly

 # debug ip routing
if you are having routing issues and have checked all addressing, physical, and logical errors try a debug statement to see how the router is thinking.  Turn debugging on and shut down the problematic interface
and turn it back on; observe the messages that appear.  To turn debugging off you can issue: no debug ip routing, undebug ip routing, or undebug all.

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