FreeBSD Configs, Tools and FAQs

1.FreeBSD install and customization
2.FreeBSD custom configs

3.FreeBSD tunning 

To export all MySQL user privileges run following script.
Note : Replace {host_name}, {user_name} and {password} with your values.
mysql -h {host_name} -u {user_name} -p{password} -Ne "select distinct concat( \"SHOW GRANTS FOR '\",user,\"'@'\",host,\"';\" ) from user;" mysql | mysql -h {host_name} -u {user_name} -p{password} | sed 's/\(GRANT .*\)/\1;/;s/^\(Grants for .*\)/## \1 ##/;/##/{x;p;x;}'

Restart IPFW and routing
service ipfw restart
/etc/rc.d/netif restart && /etc/rc.d/routing restart

View config without comments
[/zzz/lighty/conf]# grep ^[^#] lighttpd.conf



if [ -z $host ]; then
    echo "Usage: `basename $0` [HOST]"
    exit 1

while :; do
    result=`ping -W 1 -c 1 $host | grep 'bytes from '`
    if [ $? -gt 0 ]; then
        echo -e "`date +'%Y/%m/%d %H:%M:%S'` - host $host is \033[0;31mdown\033[0m"
         echo -e "`date +'%Y/%m/%d %H:%M:%S'` - host $host is \033[0;32mok\033[0m -`echo $result | cut -d ':' -f 2`"
        sleep 1 # avoid ping rain

1.FreeBSD install and customization
1.1 Basic Tools
/etc/periodic/weekly/310.locate  (probl: locate: database too small: /var/db/locate.database)
make -C /usr/ports/shells/bash -D WITH_STATIC_BASH -DWITHOUT_NLS PREFIX=/ config-recursive install clean
sysinfo (+dmidecode)
lsof - "list open files", report a list of all open files and the processes that opened them
1.2 Basic Config
rc.conf (hostname, interfaces, routes, services)
KERNEL  +  IPFW  ( )
SYSCTL (icmp limit, source route ...)
fstab (enable atime)
snmptt-1.3  (+net-snmp)
sudo - allows users to run programs with the security privileges of another user
1.3 User Soft
dhcpcd 6.0.2 PATCHUIT (manual install)
whowatch - interactive who-like program that displays information about the users currently logged.
1.4 Zabbix requirements
-/var/db/mysql   (-> /usr/mysql   ) 
php5  (5.4)

+config (main, modules,conf.d)

 + Zabbix database is down.    
1.5 Looking Glass
 +perl XML/
install Bundle::LWP
install Net::IP
install Net::Ping
install Net::Telnet
install Net::SSH
2. FreeBSD custom configs

# Uncomment this to prevent users from seeing information about processes that
# are being run under another UID.
# stops route cache degregation during a high-bandwidth flood

# Security

Full example
# sysctl.conf

# ipfw
# default e 4096

# default e 60s = 60000

# Shared memory // 7.2+ can use shared memory > 2Gb

# Увеличить максимальное число открытых сокетов

# kern.ipc.somaxconn ограничивает размер очереди для приема новых TCP соединений.
# Значение по умолчанию 128 слишком мало для надежной обработки новых соединений
# для нагруженного web сервера.
# Для такого сервера рекомендуется увеличить это значение до 1024 или выше.

# increase the size of network mbufs to allocate

# update maximum files allowed for the kernel

# Lessen max segment life to conserve resources
# ACK waiting time in miliseconds
# (default: 30000. RFC from 1979 recommends 120000)

# FIN_WAIT_2 state fast recycle

# Security

# security against stealth port scans and some DoS attacks

# stops some syn flood attacks, and route cache degregation during a high-bandwidth flood

# don't accept sourcerouted packets (they are evil, gross, and have cooties)

# IPv6 Security
# For more info see
# Disable Node info replies
# To see this vulnerability in action run `ping6 -a sglAac ::1` or `ping6 -w ::1` on unprotected node

# Turn on IPv6 privacy extensions
# For more info see proposal

# Disable ICMP redirect
Another SYSCTL info
Некоторые полезные sysctl переменные для FreeBSD
security.bsd.* - управление моделью безопасности
    security.bsd.see_other_uids, security.bsd.see_other_gids - если 1, то пользователи (группы) могут видеть чужие процессы, сокеты и т.д. через ps, netstat, procfs;
    security.bsd.conservative_signals - если 1, то некоторые сигналы запрещается посылать setuid/setgid процессам;
    security.bsd.unprivileged_proc_debug - если 1, то пользовательский процесс можно отлаживать через ptrace, procfs, ktrace и т.д..
    security.bsd.unprivileged_read_msgbuf - если 1, то пользовательский процесс может читать из системного консольного буфера сообщений;
    security.bsd.hardlink_check_uid, security.bsd.hardlink_check_gid - если 1, то пользователи могут делать hardlink только на собственные файлы;
    security.bsd.unprivileged_get_quota - если 1, пользователи могут просматривать информацию по установленным для них квотам.
    vfs.usermount - если 1, то непривилегированный пользователь может монтировать и размонтировать FS, если для устройства выставлены "rw" права и пользователь является владельцем точки монтирования;

security.jail.* - ограничения для jail
    security.jail.set_hostname_allowed - если 1, то внутри jail можно поменять имя хоста;
    security.jail.socket_unixiproute_only - если 1 , то сокет в jail можно создать только для доменов PF_LOCAL, PF_INET или PF_ROUTE, иначе, возвращается ошибка;
    security.jail.sysvipc_allowed - если 1, то то в jail можно получить доступ к глобальному System V IPC;
    security.jail.getfsstatroot_only - если 1, то в jail можно получить информацию (df)только о той файловой системе на которой создан jail;
    security.jail.allow_raw_sockets - если 1, то в jail можно создавать raw sockets;
    security.jail.chflags_allow - если 1, то процессы в jail могут модифицировать флаги ФС.

IPFW - если 1 и ядро собрано с опциями IPFIREWALL и BRIDGE, то позволяет использовать ipfw для трафика внутри бриджа; - если 1, то ipfw2 позволяет фильтровать по MAC адресам;
    net.inet.ip.fw.autoinc_step - задается число на которое увеличивается счетчик при добавления нового ipfw правила, когда явно не указан его номер;
    net.inet.ip.fw.debug - если 1, то в логи помещается дополнительная отладочная информация по работе ipfw;
    net.inet.ip.fw.verbose - если 0, то не отображать работу "log" правил в syslog;
    net.inet.ip.fw.one_pass - если 1, то просмотр правил ipfw прекращается сразу после подпадание под queue или pipe правило. Если 0, то продолжается обработка далее идущих правил;

ICMP, соединение.
    net.inet.icmp.icmplim - задается максимальное число ICMP "Unreachable" и TCP RST пакетов, которое может быть отправлено в секунду, net.inet.icmp.icmplim_output=0 позволяет не отражать в логах факты превышения лимита;
    net.inet.tcp.icmp_may_rst, если 1, то TCP соединения со статусом SYN_SENT, могут быть оборваны посредством сообщения "ICMP unreachable";
    net.inet.ip.redirect - если 0, то нет реакции на ICMP REDIRECT пакеты;
    net.inet.icmp.log_redirect - если 1, то все ICMP REDIRECT пакеты отражаются в логе;
    net.inet.icmp.drop_redirect - если 1, то ICMP REDIRECT пакеты игнорируются;
    net.inet.tcp.icmp_may_rst - если 1, то игнорируются ICMP сообщения от блокировки пакета по пути;
    net.inet.icmp.bmcastecho - для защиты от SMURF атак (ICMP echo request на broadcast адрес) нудно поставить 0;

Тюнинг сетевой подсистемы, борьба с DoS атаками
    net.inet.tcp.log_in_vain, net.inet.udp.log_in_vain - если 1, отражаем в логе попытки соединения к портам, для которых нет активных сервисов;
    net.inet.tcp.blackhole - если 1, то SYN пакеты пришедшие на порты для которых нет активных сервисов, остаются без RST ответа, если 2, то на любые пакеты нет ответа (затрудняет сканирования портов);
    kern.ipc.nmbclusters - если по "netstat -m" mbufs в "peak" приближается к "max", то число сетевых буферов нужно увеличить (kern.ipc.nmbclusters=N в /boot/locader.conf);
    net.inet.ip.forwarding - если 1, то машина может форвадить пакеты между интерфейсами;
    net.inet.tcp.sack.enable - если 1, то включен TCP Selective Acknowledgements (SACK, RFC 2018) позволяющий увеличить производительность системы в ситуации большой потери пакетов; - время жизни записи в IP route кэше, рекомендуется уменьшить для ослабления эффекта от DoS атак через ARP флуд;

Оборудование и системная информация
    dev.cpu.0.freq_levels - выдает список поддерживаемых частот, на которые можно переключить CPU, путем указание нужной частоты через dev.cpu.0.freq;
    hw.snd.maxautovchans, hw.snd.pcm0.vchans - задается число виртуальных звуковых каналов, для каждого из которых может быть отдельный источник звука (на выходе они будут смикшированы);
    kern.boottime - время последней загрузки системы;
    kern.disks - список дисков в системе;
    kern.geom.debugflags, для работы boot0cfg и подобных утилит нужно установить в 16;

Изменение и тюнинг системных ограничений
    kern.coredump - если 0, то при крахе приложения не будут создаваться core файлы, формат имени и путь для которых задается через kern.corefile (например: /tmp/%U.%N.core). kern.sugid_coredump=0 позволяет запретить генерацию core suid/sgid процессами;
    kern.maxfiles - максимально допустимое число открытых файлов (файловых дескрипторов), текущее число открытых файлов можно посмотреть через kern.openfiles;
    kern.maxprocperuid - максимально допустимое число процессов, которое может быть запущено из-под одного пользователя;
    kern.maxvnodes - максимальное число vnode для кеширования дисковых операций, текущее значение можно посмотреть через vfs.numvnodes или debug.numvnodes/debug.freevnodes;

SMP (FreeBSD 5)
    kern.smp.maxcpus (machdep.smp_cpus) - максимальное число процессоров, поддерживаемое текущей сборкой ядра;, kern.smp.disabled - число активных и выключенных CPU;
    kern.smp.cpus (machdep.smp_active) - сколько CPU в online;
    kern.smp.forward_signal_enabled - включить возможность мгновенной пересылки сигнала для процессов выполняемых в данный момент времени на разных CPU;

ARP - отражать в логе все широковещательные ARP пакеты с хостов MAC адрес которых отсутствует в локальном ARP кэше; - отражать в логе все ARP пакеты пришедшие с неправильного интерфейса;

# Beginning of the block added by the VMware software - DO NOT EDIT
# End of the block added by the VMware software
# Beginning of the block added by the VMware software - DO NOT EDIT
# End of the block added by the VMware software

touch /var/log/sudolog
echo 'Defaults !syslog' >> /usr/local/etc/sudoers
echo 'Defaults logfile = /var/log/sudolog' >> /usr/local/etc/sudoers

You can disable the logging on a user basis using the Defaults: directive
example (disabled logging for user zabbix)
Defaults:zabbix !syslog

echo 'root ALL=(ALL) ALL' >> /usr/local/etc/sudoers
echo 'zabbix ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: /sbin/sysctl, /usr/local/bin/sudo' >> /usr/local/etc/sudoers

echo '/var/log/sudolog 644 5 100 * JC' >> /etc/newsyslog.conf
/var/log/lighttpd/access.log<--><------>www:www><------>644<--->5   10000<----->*<----->B<----->/var/run/
service newsyslog restart

cat /usr/local/etc/sudoers ; cat /etc/newsyslog.conf; cat /var/log/sudolog

/etc/snmpd.config   (grep ^[^#] ./snmpd.config )  +custom MIBS @ /usr/local/share/snmp
location := "NOC "
contact := ""
system := 1 # FreeBSD
traphost := localhost
trapport := 162
read := "custpublic"
write := "custpublic"
trap := "custpublic"
NoAuthProtocol          :=
HMACMD5AuthProtocol     :=
HMACSHAAuthProtocol     :=
NoPrivProtocol          :=
DESPrivProtocol         :=
AesCfb128Protocol       :=
securityModelAny        := 0
securityModelSNMPv1     := 1
securityModelSNMPv2c    := 2
securityModelUSM        := 3
MPmodelSNMPv1           := 0
MPmodelSNMPv2c          := 1
MPmodelSNMPv3           := 3
noAuthNoPriv := 1
authNoPriv := 2
authPriv := 3
begemotSnmpdDebugDumpPdus       = 2
begemotSnmpdDebugSyslogPri      = 7
begemotSnmpdCommunityString.0.1 = $(read)
begemotSnmpdCommunityDisable    = 1
begemotSnmpdPortStatus. = 1
begemotSnmpdLocalPortStatus."/var/run/snmpd.sock" = 1
begemotSnmpdLocalPortType."/var/run/snmpd.sock" = 4
begemotTrapSinkStatus.[$(traphost)].$(trapport) = 4
begemotTrapSinkVersion.[$(traphost)].$(trapport) = 2
begemotTrapSinkComm.[$(traphost)].$(trapport) = $(trap)
sysContact      = $(contact)
sysLocation     = $(location)
sysObjectId     =$(system)
snmpEnableAuthenTraps = 2
begemotSnmpdModulePath."mibII"  = "/usr/lib/"
begemotSnmpdModulePath."ucd" = "/usr/local/lib/"
/usr/local/etc/snmp/snmp.conf    (add custom MIBS to /usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/)
mibs +ALL


mibs  +/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/VMWARE-AGENTCAP-MIB.mib
mibs  +/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/VMWARE-CIMOM-MIB.mib
mibs  +/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/VMWARE-ENV-MIB.mib
mibs  +/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/VMWARE-OBSOLETE-MIB.mib
mibs  +/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/VMWARE-PRODUCTS-MIB.mib
mibs  +/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/VMWARE-RESOURCES-MIB.mib
mibs  +/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/VMWARE-ROOT-MIB.mib
mibs  +/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/VMWARE-SRM-EVENT-MIB.mib
mibs  +/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/VMWARE-SYSTEM-MIB.mib
mibs  +/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/VMWARE-TC-MIB.mib
mibs  +/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/VMWARE-VC-EVENT-MIB.mib
mibs  +/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/VMWARE-VCOPS-EVENT-MIB.mib
mibs  +/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/VMWARE-VMINFO-MIB.mib
mibs  +/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/ds3500.mib
mibs  +/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/imm.mib
mibs  +/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/immalert.mib
mibs  +/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs/v3700.mib

/usr/local/etc/snmp/snmptrapd.conf    (Traps goes to Zabbix Trapper)
disableAuthorization yes
ignoreauthfailure no
donotlogtraps no
pidfile /var/run/
authCommunity log,execute,net public
perl do "/usr/local/etc/zabbix/"

server iburst maxpoll 9
server iburst maxpoll 9
server iburst maxpoll 9
logfile /var/log/ntp.log
#Port 22
UseDNS no
# Device        Mountpoint      FStype  Options Dump    Pass#
/dev/da0p2      /               ufs     rw      1       1
/dev/da0p3      none            swap    sw      0       0
/dev/da0p4      /var            ufs     rw,noatime      2       2
/dev/da0p5      /usr            ufs     rw,noatime      2       2
/dev/da0p6      /tmp            ufs     rw,noatime      2       2
# /dev/md0      /cache          mfs     rw,noatime,-s1024M      0       0
# /dev/da1s1b     none            swap    sw      0       0
/etc/my.cnf      cp /usr/local/share/mysql/my-large.cnf  /var/db/mysql/my.cnf   (ln -s /etc/my.cnf)
mkdir /var/log/mysql
chown mysql:mysql /var/log/mysql
port            = 3306
socket          = /tmp/mysql.sock
bind-address =
datadir= /usr/mysql
port            = 3306
socket          = /tmp/mysql.sock
key_buffer_size = 32M
max_allowed_packet = 1M
table_open_cache = 64
sort_buffer_size = 512K
net_buffer_length = 8K
read_buffer_size = 256K
read_rnd_buffer_size = 512K
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 8M
server-id       = 1
query_cache_limit = 1048576
query_cache_size = 24000000
query_cache_type = 1
max_allowed_packet = 16M
thread_stack = 256K
thread_cache_size = 80
thread_concurrency = 4
tmp_table_size = 512M
max_heap_table_size = 256M
table_cache = 512
log_error = /var/log/mysql/mysql-error.log
slow_query_log_file = /var/log/mysql/mysql-slow.log
slow_query_log = 1
long_query_time = 10
# Replication Master Server (default)
# binary logging is required for replication
# log-bin=mysql-bin
# binary logging format - mixed recommended
# binlog_format=mixed
innodb_data_home_dir = /usr/mysql
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:128M;ibdata2:128M:autoextend:max:4096M
innodb_log_group_home_dir = /usr/mysql
innodb_file_per_table = 1     #Creates idb for every table in db folders
innodb_status_file = 1
innodb_thread_concurrency = 8     #Should match number of processors
innodb_io_capacity = 2000
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 2
innodb_support_xa = 0
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 1500M
innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 10M
innodb_log_file_size = 192M
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 0
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 50
innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M
max_allowed_packet = 16M
key_buffer_size = 20M
sort_buffer_size = 20M
read_buffer = 2M
write_buffer = 2M
/usr/local/etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf  (Lighttpd+PHP)
var.log_root    = "/var/log/lighttpd"
var.server_root = "/usr/local/www/apache22/data"
var.state_dir   = "/var/run"
var.home_dir    = "/var/spool/lighttpd"
var.conf_dir    = "/usr/local/etc/lighttpd"
var.cache_dir   = "/var/cache/lighttpd"
var.socket_dir  = home_dir + "/sockets"
include "modules.conf"
server.port = 80
server.use-ipv6 = "disable"
server.username  = "www"
server.groupname = "www"
server.document-root = "/usr/local/www/apache22/data/" = state_dir + "/"
server.errorlog             = log_root + "/error.log"
include "conf.d/debug.conf"
server.event-handler = "freebsd-kqueue" = "writev"
server.max-fds = 2048
server.stat-cache-engine = "simple"
server.max-connections = 1024
index-file.names += (
  "index.xhtml", "index.html", "index.htm", "default.htm", "index.php"
url.access-deny             = ( "~", ".inc" )
$HTTP["url"] =~ "\.pdf$" {
  server.range-requests = "disable"
static-file.exclude-extensions = ( ".php", ".pl", ".fcgi", ".scgi" )
include "conf.d/mime.conf"
include "conf.d/dirlisting.conf"
server.follow-symlink = "enable"
server.upload-dirs = ( "/var/tmp" )
$SERVER["socket"] == ":80" { }
alias.url = (
"/lg"         => "/usr/local/www/apache22/data/lg/lg.cgi",
"/drupal"     => "/usr/local/www/drupal6"
$HTTP["remoteip"] !~ "10.0|172.16|192.168" {
    $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/lg/" {  url.access-deny = ( "" )   }

server.modules = (
include "conf.d/status.conf"
include "conf.d/fastcgi.conf"
include "conf.d/cgi.conf"

server.modules += ( "mod_fastcgi" )
fastcgi.server = (
 ".php" =>
        "socket" => "/tmp/php-fpm.sock",
        "bin-path" => "/usr/local/bin/php-cgi",
        "bin-environment" => ("PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN" => "16","PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS" => "10000" ),
        "max-procs" => 2,
        "bin-copy-environment" => ( "PATH", "SHELL", "USER" ),
        "broken-scriptfilename" => "enable" ))
/usr/local/etc/php.ini       grep '^[^ ;]' ./php.ini 
engine = On
short_open_tag = Off
asp_tags = Off
precision = 14
output_buffering = 4096
zlib.output_compression = Off
implicit_flush = Off
unserialize_callback_func =
serialize_precision = 17
disable_functions =
disable_classes =
zend.enable_gc = On
expose_php = On
max_execution_time = 300
max_input_time = 300
memory_limit = 512M
error_reporting = E_ALL & ~E_DEPRECATED & ~E_STRICT
display_errors = Off
display_startup_errors = Off
log_errors = On
log_errors_max_len = 1024
ignore_repeated_errors = Off
ignore_repeated_source = Off
report_memleaks = On
track_errors = Off
html_errors = On
variables_order = "GPCS"
request_order = "GP"
register_argc_argv = Off
auto_globals_jit = On
post_max_size = 24M
auto_prepend_file =
auto_append_file =
default_mimetype = "text/html"
doc_root =
user_dir =
enable_dl = Off
file_uploads = On
upload_max_filesize = 8M
max_file_uploads = 20
allow_url_fopen = On
allow_url_include = Off
default_socket_timeout = 60
[CLI Server]
cli_server.color = On
date.timezone = "Europe/Chisinau"
pdo_mysql.cache_size = 2000
[mail function]
SMTP = localhost
smtp_port = 25
mail.add_x_header = On
sql.safe_mode = Off
odbc.allow_persistent = On
odbc.check_persistent = On
odbc.max_persistent = -1
odbc.max_links = -1
odbc.defaultlrl = 4096
odbc.defaultbinmode = 1
ibase.allow_persistent = 1
ibase.max_persistent = -1
ibase.max_links = -1
ibase.timestampformat = "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"
ibase.dateformat = "%Y-%m-%d"
ibase.timeformat = "%H:%M:%S"
mysql.allow_local_infile = On
mysql.allow_persistent = On
mysql.cache_size = 2000
mysql.max_persistent = -1
mysql.max_links = -1
mysql.default_port =
mysql.default_socket =
mysql.default_host =
mysql.default_user =
mysql.default_password =
mysql.connect_timeout = 60
mysql.trace_mode = Off
mysqli.max_persistent = -1
mysqli.allow_persistent = On
mysqli.max_links = -1
mysqli.cache_size = 2000
mysqli.default_port = 3306
mysqli.default_socket =
mysqli.default_host =
mysqli.default_user =
mysqli.default_pw =
mysqli.reconnect = Off
mysqlnd.collect_statistics = On
mysqlnd.collect_memory_statistics = Off
pgsql.allow_persistent = On
pgsql.auto_reset_persistent = Off
pgsql.max_persistent = -1
pgsql.max_links = -1
pgsql.ignore_notice = 0
pgsql.log_notice = 0
sybct.allow_persistent = On
sybct.max_persistent = -1
sybct.max_links = -1
sybct.min_server_severity = 10
sybct.min_client_severity = 10
bcmath.scale = 0
session.save_handler = files
session.use_cookies = 1
session.use_only_cookies = 1 = PHPSESSID
session.auto_start = 0
session.cookie_lifetime = 0
session.cookie_path = /
session.cookie_domain =
session.cookie_httponly =
session.serialize_handler = php
session.gc_probability = 1
session.gc_divisor = 1000
session.gc_maxlifetime = 1440
session.bug_compat_42 = Off
session.bug_compat_warn = Off
session.referer_check =
session.cache_limiter = nocache
session.cache_expire = 180
session.use_trans_sid = 0
session.hash_function = 0
session.hash_bits_per_character = 5
url_rewriter.tags = "a=href,area=href,frame=src,input=src,form=fakeentry"
mssql.allow_persistent = On
mssql.max_persistent = -1
mssql.max_links = -1
mssql.min_error_severity = 10
mssql.min_message_severity = 10
mssql.compatability_mode = Off
mssql.secure_connection = Off
tidy.clean_output = Off
soap.wsdl_cache_limit = 5
ldap.max_links = -1

3.FreeBSD tunning

Tuning FreeBSD for different applications

FreeBSD performance tuning

Kernel Customizing


3) (DNSSec)




1) locate: database too small
ns2# locate mutt
locate: database too small: /var/db/locate.database
or alternatively
2) PERL install modules
#perl -MCPAN -eshell
cpan> help
cpan> install Bundle::LWP
cpan> install Net::IP
cpan> install Net::Ping
3) Output redirects
Use command >/dev/null if you only want error output.
Use command 2>/dev/null if you don't want error output.
Use command > dev/null 2>&1 if you don't want any output. 
4) Mail
# /etc/rc.d/sendmail status
Cannot 'status' sendmail. Set sendmail_enable to YES in /etc/rc.conf or use 'onestatus' instead of 'status'.
Cannot 'status' sendmail_clientmqueue. Set sendmail_msp_queue_enable to YES in /etc/rc.conf or use 'onestatus' instead of 'status'.

# service sendmail status 
sendmail is not running.
sendmail_clientmqueue is not running.
# /etc/rc.d/sendmail onestatus
sendmail is not running.
sendmail_clientmqueue is not running.
5) Noatime tuning
mount -u -o rw,noatime /usr
6) Reboot in single user mode
# mount -u /
# mount -a
# chsh /bin/tcsh
# chpass -s /bin/bash
7) Custom kernel
# cd /usr/src/sys/i386/conf
# cd /usr/src
# make buildkernel KERNCONF=MYKERNEL; make installkernel KERNCONF=MYKERNEL
8) Remove all those ^M characters from a DOS file
tr -d '\015' < dosfile > newfile
9) Port updates
Adding the following line to /etc/crontab will cause portsnap to update its compressed snapshot and the INDEX files in /usr/ports/, and will send an email if any installed ports are out of date:
0 3 * * * root portsnap -I cron update && pkg_version -vIL=
30      5       *       *       *       root    portsnap -I cron update && pkg_version -vIL=
30      3       *       *       *       root    /bin/sh /etc/rc.d/ntp

10) Blackholing DDOS

11) ICMP Limit (if use server for monitoring)
Limiting icmp unreach response from 244 to 200 packets per second
Limiting icmp unreach response from 257 to 200 packets per second
# sysctl -w net.inet.icmp.icmplim=10000
net.inet.icmp.icmplim: 200 -> 10000
[root@stats /zzz/munin_node]# echo 'net.inet.icmp.icmplim=1000' >> /etc/sysctl.conf
12) Kill a lot of same process
for i in `ps -aux |grep logcheck|awk '{print $2}'`;do kill -9 $i;done
13) Protect important files
# chflags schg /tmp/test
# rm -f /tmp/test
rm: /tmp/test: Operation not permitted
# ls -lo /tmp/test
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel  schg 0 Mar 19 08:36 /tmp/test
#chflags noschg /tmp/test
14) Autoconf error while compile
 You should check, where you've got makeinfo. If exists in both directories - /usr/bin and /usr/local/bin, then rename
/usr/bin/makeinfo -> /usr/bin/makeinfo_
This should fix this problem
(i found this solution at some forum)
autom4te: need GNU m4 1.4 or later: /usr/local/bin/gm4
gmake[2]: *** [] Error 1
gmake[2]: Leaving directory `/usr/ports/devel/autoconf/work/autoconf-2.69/bin'
gmake[1]: *** [all-recursive] Error 1
gmake[1]: Leaving directory `/usr/ports/devel/autoconf/work/autoconf-2.69'
gmake: *** [all] Error 2
*** Error code 1
deinstall bison and m4, and recompile again
FreeBSD 9.3
[root@zabbix-access-bsd9 /etc]# pkg remove m4-1.4.17_1,1
Updating database digests format: 100%
Checking integrity... done (0 conflicting)
Deinstallation has been requested for the following 2 packages (of 0 packages in the universe):

Installed packages to be REMOVED:
        bison-2.7.1,1 (depends on m4-1.4.17_1,1)

The operation will free 2 MB.

Proceed with deinstalling packages? [y/N]: y
[1/2] Deleting bison-2.7.1,1: 100%
[2/2] Deleting m4-1.4.17_1,1: 100%
[root@zabbix-access-bsd9 /etc]# 
[root@zabbix-access-bsd9 /usr/ports/devel/autoconf]# make clean
===>  Cleaning for autoconf-2.69
FreeBSD 9.2
# pkg_info | grep m4
m4-1.4.16_1,1       GNU m4
# pkg_info | grep bison
bison-2.5.1,1       A parser generator from FSF, (mostly) compatible with Yacc
# pkg_delete bison-2.5.1,1
# pkg_delete m4-1.4.16_1,1
15) Automatic restart service
В процессе установки ПО для FreeBSD "правильные" службы автоматически прописывают скрипт запуска в /usr/local/etc/rc.d и управление его поведением определяется в /etc/rc.conf

Однако случается так что успешно запустившись при включении сервера, служба по ряду причин падает позже в процессе работы (такое случается например c dovecot или squid). В результате чего как минимум требуется перезапуск с последующим анализом причин поведения. Про анализ причин поведения отдельная песня, а вот перезапускать в таких редких случаях ручками может получиться с изрядными задержками, пока не выяснится, что что-то перестало работать.

На этот счет я практикую запуск через cron команды которая проверяет все сконфигурированные к запуску скрипты /usr/local/etc/rc.d на предмет поддержки команды status и если эта команда возвращает отрицательный результат (т.е. сервис не активен) то заново запускает его.

Итого в файле /var/cron/tabs/root значится строка

   */5 * * * * /usr/bin/find /usr/local/etc/rc.d/ -type file | xargs -I$ sh -c "($  2>&1 | grep -q -v status) \
      && exit ; ($ status > /dev/null) && exit ; $ start"

В итоге, если служба остановилась, она будет перезапущена в течении 5 минут, и на root придет сообщение с логом запуска (если конечно почтовая подсистема настроена)
Автор: Алексей Волков 
16) Disk performance
INFO: For security recommendations see the security(7) man page.
INFO: For system tuning advice, see the tuning(7) man page.
INFO: To view various system statistics use the systat(1) tool.

[root@rs2 /usr/home/sc]# diskinfo -c /dev/da0p2
        512             # sectorsize
        10199433216     # mediasize in bytes (9.5G)
        19920768        # mediasize in sectors
        0               # stripesize
        82944           # stripeoffset
        1240            # Cylinders according to firmware.
        255             # Heads according to firmware.
        63              # Sectors according to firmware.
                        # Disk ident.

I/O command overhead:
        time to read 10MB block      0.099943 sec       =    0.005 msec/sector
        time to read 20480 sectors   6.619615 sec       =    0.323 msec/sector
        calculated command overhead                     =    0.318 msec/sector
17) net-snmp SNMP
**** This port installs snmp daemon, header files and libraries but don't
     invokes snmpd by default.
     If you want to invoke snmpd and/or snmptrapd at startup, put these
     lines into /etc/rc.conf.

        snmpd_conffile="/usr/local/share/snmp/snmpd.conf /etc/snmpd.conf"
        snmptrapd_flags="-a -p /var/run/"

**** You may specify the following make variables:

        NET_SNMP_SYS_LOCATION="Brasilia, BRA"
        NET_SNMP_MIB_MODULES="host smux mibII/mta_sendmail ucd-snmp/diskio"

     to define default values (or overwriting defaults).  At least
     setting first two variables, you will not be prompted during
     configuration process.  You may also set


     to avoid interactive configuration.
18) pkgconf-0.8.9
 ===>  Installing for pkgconf-0.8.9
===>  pkgconf-0.8.9 conflicts with installed package(s):

      They install files into the same place.
      Please remove them first with pkg_delete(1).
*** Error code 1
 Solution: portmaster -o devel/pkgconf devel/pkg-config
  AFFECTS: users of devel/pkg-config
    devel/pkg-config has been replaced by devel/pkgconf
    # portmaster -o devel/pkgconf devel/pkg-config
   # portupgrade -fo devel/pkgconf pkg-config-\*

  # pkg set -o devel/pkg-config:devel/pkgconf
  # pkg install -f devel/pkgconf
19) Rotate sudolog
touch /var/log/sudolog
echo 'Defaults !syslog' >> /usr/local/etc/sudoers
echo 'Defaults logfile = /var/log/sudolog' >> /usr/local/etc/sudoers

echo 'root ALL=(ALL) ALL' >> /usr/local/etc/sudoers
echo 'zabbix ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: /sbin/sysctl, /usr/local/bin/sudo' >> /usr/local/etc/sudoers

echo '/var/log/sudolog 644 5 100 * JC' >> /etc/newsyslog.conf
service newsyslog restart

cat /usr/local/etc/sudoers ; cat /etc/newsyslog.conf; cat /var/log/sudolog

newsyslog -F     will force ALL log files in newsyslog.conf to be rotated immediately.
20) pkg_info: corrupted record (pkgdep line without argument), ignoring

grep "^@pkgdep" /var/db/pkg/*/+CONTENTS | awk '{ if (NF != 2) { print $1 } }' | cut -d':' -f1
I then did a 'portupgrade -f' on those packages. 
Problem solved.

21) FreeBSD FTP server
1) vi /etc/inetd.conf
# uncomment
ftp stream tcp nowait root /usr/libexec/ftpd ftpd -l

2) add inetd_enable="YES"  @ rc.conf
/etc/rc.d/inetd restart
3) echo ftpuser >> /etc/ftpchroot

4) vi /etc/syslog.conf
# add      /var/log/xferlog

 service syslogd restart

5) vi /etc/shells
# add nologin shell

6) Add ftp user
adduser ftpuser
Username: ftpuser
Full name: ftpuser
Uid (Leave empty for default):
Login group [ftp]:
Login group is ftp. Invite ftpuser into other groups? []:
Login class [default]:
Shell (sh csh tcsh bash rbash nologin) [sh]: nologin
Home directory [/home/ftpuser]:
Home directory permissions (Leave empty for default):
Use password-based authentication? [yes]:
Use an empty password? (yes/no) [no]:
Use a random password? (yes/no) [no]: yes
Lock out the account after creation? [no]:
Username   : ftpuser
Password   : <random>
Full Name  : ftpuser
Uid        : 1005
Class      :
Groups     : ftp
Home       : /home/ftpuser
Home Mode  :
Shell      : /usr/sbin/nologin
Locked     : no
OK? (yes/no): yes
adduser: INFO: Successfully added (ftpuser) to the user database.
adduser: INFO: Password for (ftpuser) is: IcsPSQUtx
Add another user? (yes/no): no

7) Generate random file 100 MBytes
dd if=/dev/random of=myfile.dat bs=$(( 1024 * 1024 )) count=500

21a)  Pure-FTP Virtual users
# cat /etc/passwd  | grep -i ftp
user1ftp:*:1003:1003:Virtual FTP user:/usr/home/user1ftp?:/sbin/nologin

pure-pw userdel ftpvirtuser
pure-pw useradd ftpvirtuser -u www -g www -d /usr/local/www/nginx/md185/
pure-pw mkdb
In case of ...
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/pure-ftpd restart
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/pure-ftpd status
22) Squid config

# cat ./squid.conf | egrep -v "(^#.*|^$)"
acl all src all
acl manager proto cache_object
acl localhost src
acl to_localhost dst
acl localnet src     # RFC1918 possible internal network
acl localnet src  # RFC1918 possible internal network
acl localnet src # RFC1918 possible internal network
acl SSL_ports port 443
acl Safe_ports port 80          # http
acl Safe_ports port 21          # ftp
acl Safe_ports port 443         # https
acl Safe_ports port 70          # gopher
acl Safe_ports port 210         # wais
acl Safe_ports port 1025-65535  # unregistered ports
acl Safe_ports port 280         # http-mgmt
acl Safe_ports port 488         # gss-http
acl Safe_ports port 591         # filemaker
acl Safe_ports port 777         # multiling http
http_access allow manager localhost
http_access deny manager
http_access deny !Safe_ports
http_access deny CONNECT !SSL_ports
http_access allow localnet
http_access deny all
icp_access allow localnet
icp_access deny all
http_port 3128
hierarchy_stoplist cgi-bin ?
cache_dir ufs /var/log/squid/cache 100 16 256
access_log /var/log/squid/logs/access.log squid
cache_log /var/log/squid/logs/cache.log
pid_filename /var/log/squid/logs/
netdb_filename /var/log/squid/logs/netdb.state
refresh_pattern ^ftp:           1440    20%     10080
refresh_pattern ^gopher:        1440    0%      1440
refresh_pattern -i (/cgi-bin/|\?) 0     0%      0
refresh_pattern .               0       20%     4320
acl shoutcast rep_header X-HTTP09-First-Line ^ICY.[0-9]
upgrade_http0.9 deny shoutcast
acl apache rep_header Server ^Apache
broken_vary_encoding allow apache
cache_mgr admins@mydomain
visible_hostname my-proxy
coredump_dir /var/log/squid/cache
cache deny all

# sockstat -4 | grep squid
squid    squid      1904  6  udp4   *:42109               *:*
squid    squid      1904  13 tcp4   *:3128                *:*
squid    squid      1904  14 udp4   *:3130                *:*

23) mc (midnight commander) slow start
check hostname from rc.conf and /etc/hosts
::1                     localhost               localhost           zabbix221 freebsd92

24) Migrate FreeBSD users from one system to another
Move user entries from the following old files:
Then run the following command to rebuild the password database:
pwd_mkdb -p /etc/master.passwd 

25) pkg_info @ 25_08_2014

apr-     Apache Portability Library
argp-standalone-1.3_2 Standalone version of arguments parsing functions from GLIB
atop-2.0.2.b2       ASCII Monitor for system resources and process activity
autoconf-2.69       Automatically configure source code on many Un*x platforms
autoconf-wrapper-20130530 Wrapper script for GNU autoconf
automake-1.14       GNU Standards-compliant Makefile generator
automake-wrapper-20131203 Wrapper script for GNU automake
bash-static-4.2.45  The GNU Project's Bourne Again SHell
bigreqsproto-1.1.2  BigReqs extension headers
bison-2.7.1,1       A parser generator from FSF, (mostly) compatible with Yacc
boost-jam-1.52.0_1  Build tool from the
boost-jam-1.55.0    Build tool from the
boost-libs-1.52.0_2 Free portable C++ libraries (without Boost.Python)
bsdadminscripts-6.1.1_4 Collection of administration scripts
bsdinfo-0.22        A simple utility to display system-based information
bsdpan-App-cpanminus-1.7004 App::cpanminus - get, unpack, build and install modules fro
bsdpan-Archive-Extract-0.72 Archive::Extract - A generic archive extracting mechanism
bsdpan-Archive-Tar-2.00 Archive::Tar - module for manipulations of tar archives
bsdpan-Attribute-Handlers-0.96 Attribute::Handlers - Simpler definition of attribute handl
bsdpan-AutoLoader-5.74 AutoLoader - load subroutines only on demand
bsdpan-B-Debug-1.21 B::Debug - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing debug info about
bsdpan-B-Lint-1.17  B::Lint - Perl lint
bsdpan-CGI-Fast-2.02 CGI::Fast - CGI Interface for Fast CGI  CGI - Handle Common Gateway Interface requests and response
bsdpan-CPAN-2.05    CPAN - query, download and build perl modules from CPAN sit
bsdpan-CPAN-DistnameInfo-0.12 CPAN::DistnameInfo - Extract distribution name and version
bsdpan-CPAN-Meta-Requirements-2.126 CPAN::Meta::Requirements - a set of version requirements fo
bsdpan-CPANPLUS-0.9152 CPANPLUS - API & CLI access to the CPAN mirrors
bsdpan-Carp-1.3301  Carp - alternative warn and die for modules
bsdpan-Cisco-Management-0.06 Cisco::Management - Interface for Cisco Management
bsdpan-Cisco-Management-0.08 Cisco::Management - Interface for Cisco Management
bsdpan-Compress-Raw-Bzip2-2.064 Compress::Raw::Bzip2 - Low-Level Interface to bzip2 compres
bsdpan-Compress-Raw-Zlib-2.065 Compress::Raw::Zlib - Low-Level Interface to zlib compressi
bsdpan-Convert-ASN1-0.26 Unknown perl module
bsdpan-DB_File-1.831 DB_File - Perl5 access to Berkeley DB version 1.x
bsdpan-Data-Dumper-2.151 Data::Dumper - stringified perl data structures, suitable f
bsdpan-Devel-PPPort-3.24 Devel::PPPort - Perl/Pollution/Portability
bsdpan-Digest-MD5-2.53 Digest::MD5 - Perl interface to the MD5 Algorithm
bsdpan-Digest-SHA-5.92 Digest::SHA - Perl extension for SHA-1/224/256/384/512
bsdpan-Encode-2.62  Encode - character encodings in Perl
bsdpan-Encode-Locale-1.03 Encode::Locale - Determine the locale encoding
bsdpan-Exporter-5.70 Exporter - Implements default import method for modules
bsdpan-ExtUtils-MakeMaker-6.98 ExtUtils::MakeMaker - Create a module Makefile
bsdpan-ExtUtils-Manifest-1.65 ExtUtils::Manifest - utilities to write and check a MANIFES
bsdpan-FCGI-0.77    FCGI - Fast CGI module
bsdpan-File-Fetch-0.48 File::Fetch - A generic file fetching mechanism
bsdpan-File-Listing-6.04 File::Listing - parse directory listing
bsdpan-File-Path-2.09 File::Path - Create or remove directory trees
bsdpan-Filter-1.49  Filter::Util::Call - Perl Source Filter Utility Module
bsdpan-Filter-Simple-0.91 Filter::Simple - Simplified source filtering
bsdpan-Foo-Bar-0.01 Sample - Foo foo sample foo
bsdpan-Getopt-Long-2.42 Getopt::Long - Extended processing of command line options
bsdpan-HTML-Parser-3.71 HTML::Parser - HTML parser class
bsdpan-HTML-Tagset-3.20 HTML::Tagset - data tables useful in parsing HTML
bsdpan-HTTP-Cookies-6.01 HTTP::Cookies - HTTP cookie jars
bsdpan-HTTP-Daemon-6.01 HTTP::Daemon - a simple http server class
bsdpan-HTTP-Date-6.02 HTTP::Date - date conversion routines
bsdpan-HTTP-Message-6.06 HTTP::Message - HTTP style message (base class)
bsdpan-HTTP-Negotiate-6.01 HTTP::Negotiate - choose a variant to serve
bsdpan-IO-1.25      IO - load various IO modules
bsdpan-IO-Compress-2.064 IO::Compress::Base - Base Class for IO::Compress modules
bsdpan-IO-HTML-1.00 IO::HTML - Open an HTML file with automatic charset detecti
bsdpan-IPC-Cmd-0.92 IPC::Cmd - finding and running system commands made easy
bsdpan-IPC-SysV-2.04 IPC::SysV - System V IPC constants and system calls
bsdpan-LWP-MediaTypes-6.02 LWP::MediaTypes - guess media type for a file or a URL
bsdpan-Locale-Maketext-1.25 Unknown perl module
bsdpan-Log-Message-0.08 Log::Message - A generic message storing mechanism;
bsdpan-Log-Message-Simple-0.10 Log::Message::Simple - Simplified interface to Log::Message
bsdpan-MIME-Base64-3.14 MIME::Base64 - Encoding and decoding of base64 strings
bsdpan-Math-Base85-0.2 Math::Base85 - Perl extension for base 85 numbers, as refer
bsdpan-Memoize-1.03 Memoize - Make functions faster by trading space for time
bsdpan-Module-CoreList-5.021002 Unknown perl module
bsdpan-Module-Load-0.32 Module::Load - runtime require of both modules and files
bsdpan-Module-Load-Conditional-0.62 Module::Load::Conditional - Looking up module information /
bsdpan-Net-DNS-0.78 Net::DNS - Perl Interface to the Domain Name System
bsdpan-Net-HTTP-6.06 Net::HTTP - Low-level HTTP connection (client)
bsdpan-Net-HTTP-6.07 Net::HTTP - Low-level HTTP connection (client)
bsdpan-Net-IP-1.26  Net::IP - Perl extension for manipulating IPv4/IPv6 address
bsdpan-Net-IPv4Addr-0.10 Net::IPv4Addr - Perl extension for manipulating IPv4 addres
bsdpan-Net-IPv6Addr-0.2 Net::IPv6Addr -- check validity of IPv6 addresses
bsdpan-Net-Ping-2.41 Net::Ping - check a remote host for reachability
bsdpan-Net-SNMPTrapd-0.12 Net::SNMPTrapd - Perl implementation of SNMP Trap Listener
bsdpan-Net-SNMPTrapd-0.13 Net::SNMPTrapd - Perl implementation of SNMP Trap Listener
bsdpan-Net-SSH-0.09 Net::SSH - Perl extension for secure shell
bsdpan-Net-Syslogd-0.10 Net::Syslogd - Perl implementation of Syslog Listener
bsdpan-Net-Syslogd-0.11 Net::Syslogd - Perl implementation of Syslog Listener
bsdpan-Net-TFTPd-0.06 Net::TFTPd - Perl extension for Trivial File Transfer Proto
bsdpan-Net-Telnet-3.04 Net::Telnet - interact with TELNET port or other TCP ports
bsdpan-Net-Telnet-Cisco-1.10 Net::Telnet::Cisco - interact with a Cisco router
bsdpan-NetSNMP-default_store-5.0404 NetSNMP::default_store - Perl extension for Net-SNMP generi
bsdpan-Object-Accessor-0.48 Object::Accessor - interface to create per object accessors
bsdpan-Package-Constants-0.04 Package::Constants - List all constants declared in a packa
bsdpan-Params-Check-0.38 Params::Check - A generic input parsing/checking mechanism.
bsdpan-PathTools-3.47 Cwd - get pathname of current working directory
bsdpan-PerlIO-via-QuotedPrint-0.07 PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint - PerlIO layer for quoted-printabl
bsdpan-Pod-Checker-1.71 Pod::Checker - check pod documents for syntax errors
bsdpan-Pod-Escapes-1.06 Pod::Escapes - for resolving Pod EE<lt>...E<gt> sequences
bsdpan-Pod-Parser-1.62 Pod::Find - find POD documents in directory trees
bsdpan-Pod-Perldoc-3.23 Pod::Perldoc - Look up Perl documentation in Pod format.
bsdpan-Pod-Simple-3.28 Unknown perl module
bsdpan-Pod-Usage-1.63 Pod::Usage, pod2usage() - print a usage message from embedd
bsdpan-Pod-Usage-1.64 Pod::Usage - print a usage message from embedded pod docume
bsdpan-Safe-2.35    Safe - Compile and execute code in restricted compartments
bsdpan-Scalar-List-Utils-1.39 List::Util - A selection of general-utility list subroutine
bsdpan-Search-Dict-1.07 Search::Dict - look - search for key in dictionary file
bsdpan-Socket-2.013 C<Socket> - networking constants and support functions
bsdpan-Socket-2.014 C<Socket> - networking constants and support functions
bsdpan-Socket6-0.25 Socket6 - IPv6 related part of the C socket.h defines and s
bsdpan-Storable-2.51 Storable - persistence for Perl data structures
bsdpan-Sys-Syslog-0.33 Sys::Syslog - Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls
bsdpan-Term-Cap-1.16 Term::Cap - Perl termcap interface
bsdpan-Term-UI-0.42 Term::UI - Term::ReadLine UI made easy
bsdpan-TermReadKey-2.32 Term::ReadKey - A perl module for simple terminal control
bsdpan-Test-1.26    Test - provides a simple framework for writing test scripts
bsdpan-Test-Deep-0.112 Test::Deep - Extremely flexible deep comparison
bsdpan-Test-Harness-3.32 Test::Harness - Run Perl standard test scripts with statist
bsdpan-Test-NoWarnings-1.04 Test::NoWarnings - Make sure you didn't emit any warnings w
bsdpan-Test-Simple-1.001003 Test::Simple - Basic utilities for writing tests.
bsdpan-Test-Tester-0.109 Test::Tester - Ease testing test modules built with Test::B
bsdpan-Text-ParseWords-3.29 Text::ParseWords - parse text into an array of tokens or ar
bsdpan-Text-Soundex-3.04 Text::Soundex - Implementation of the soundex algorithm.
bsdpan-Text-Tabs+Wrap-2013.0523 Text::Wrap - line wrapping to form simple paragraphs
bsdpan-Thread-Queue-3.05 Thread::Queue - Thread-safe queues
bsdpan-Tie-File-1.00 Tie::File - Access the lines of a disk file via a Perl arra
bsdpan-Time-HiRes-1.9726 Time::HiRes - High resolution alarm, sleep, gettimeofday, i
bsdpan-Time-Piece-1.27 Time::Piece - Object Oriented time objects
bsdpan-URI-1.60     URI - Uniform Resource Identifiers (absolute and relative)
bsdpan-URI-1.64     URI - Uniform Resource Identifiers (absolute and relative)
bsdpan-Unicode-Collate-1.07 Unicode::Collate - Unicode Collation Algorithm
bsdpan-Unicode-Normalize-1.18 Unicode::Normalize - Unicode Normalization Forms
bsdpan-WWW-RobotRules-6.02 WWW::RobotRules - database of robots.txt-derived permission
bsdpan-XML-NamespaceSupport-1.11 XML::NamespaceSupport - a simple generic namespace support
bsdpan-XML-Parser-2.41 XML::Parser - A perl module for parsing XML documents
bsdpan-XML-SAX-0.99 XML::SAX - Simple API for XML
bsdpan-XML-SAX-Base-1.08 XML::SAX::Base - Base class SAX Drivers and Filters
bsdpan-XML-SAX-Expat-0.50 XML::SAX::Expat - SAX2 Driver for Expat (XML::Parser)
bsdpan-XML-SAX-Expat-0.51 XML::SAX::Expat - SAX2 Driver for Expat (XML::Parser)
bsdpan-XML-Simple-2.20 XML::Simple - Easily read/write XML (esp config files)
bsdpan-YAML-0.88    YAML - YAML Ain't Markup Language (tm)
bsdpan-install-0.01 install - Dummy module that prevents unexpected results fro
bsdpan-libnet-1.23  Net::Cmd - Network Command class (as used by FTP, SMTP etc)
bsdpan-libwww-perl-6.05 LWP - The World-Wide Web library for Perl
bsdpan-libwww-perl-6.08 LWP - The World-Wide Web library for Perl
bsdpan-local-lib-2.000012 local::lib - create and use a local lib/ for perl modules w
bsdpan-parent-0.228 parent - Establish an ISA relationship with base classes at
bsdpan-podlators-2.5.3 Unknown perl module
bsdpan-threads-1.92 threads - Perl interpreter-based threads
bsdpan-threads-shared-1.46 threads::shared - Perl extension for sharing data structure
bsnmp-ucd-0.4.0     A bsnmpd module that implements parts of UCD-SNMP-MIB
ca_root_nss- The root certificate bundle from the Mozilla Project
cmake-      Cross-platform Makefile generator
cmake-modules- Modules and Templates for CMake
compat6x-amd64-6.4.604000.200810_3 Convenience package to install the compat6x libraries
coreutils-8.20_2    The Free Software Foundation's core utilities
curl-7.33.0_1       Non-interactive tool to get files from FTP, GOPHER, HTTP(S)
db41-4.1.25_4       The Berkeley DB package, revision 4.1
db42-4.2.52_5       The Berkeley DB package, revision 4.2
dhcpdump-1.8        Decode and diagnose sniffed DHCP packets
dialog4ports-0.1.5_2 Console Interface to configure ports
diffstat-1.57       Makes a histogram summarizing "diff" output
dmidecode-2.12      Tool for dumping DMI (SMBIOS) contents in human-readable fo
dtpstree-1.0.3      Display a tree of processes
expat-2.1.0         XML 1.0 parser written in C
fontconfig-2.10.95,1 XML-based font configuration API for X Windows
fpdns- Fingerprinting DNS servers
fping-3.5           Quickly ping N hosts w/o flooding the network
freeipmi-1.3.4      Library and tools to support IPMI-capable hardware
freetype2-   Free and portable TrueType font rendering engine
gawk-4.1.0          The GNU version of Awk
gdbm-1.10           GNU database manager
gettext-    GNU gettext package
glib-2.36.3         Some useful routines of C programming (current stable versi
gmake-3.82_1        GNU version of 'make' utility
gsed-4.2.2          The GNU stream editor
help2man-1.43.3     Automatically generating simple manual pages from program o
icu-50.1.2          International Components for Unicode (from IBM)
inputproto-2.3      Input extension headers
ipmitool-1.8.12_4   CLI to manage IPMI systems
jpeg-8_4            IJG's jpeg compression utilities
jwhois-4.0_3        An improved WHOIS client capable of selecting server to que
kbproto-1.0.6       KB extension headers
libICE-1.0.8,1      Inter Client Exchange library for X11
libSM-1.2.2,1       Session Management library for X11
libX11-1.6.2,1      X11 library
libXScrnSaver-1.2.2 The XScrnSaver library
libXau-1.0.8        Authentication Protocol library for X11
libXaw-1.0.12,2     X Athena Widgets library
libXdmcp-1.1.1      X Display Manager Control Protocol library
libXext-1.3.2,1     X11 Extension library
libXft-2.3.1        Client-sided font API for X applications
libXmu-1.1.2,1      X Miscellaneous Utilities libraries
libXp-1.0.2,1       X print library
libXpm-3.5.11       X Pixmap library
libXrender-0.9.8    X Render extension library
libXt-1.1.4,1       X Toolkit library
libcheck-0.9.11     Unit test framework for C
libexecinfo-1.1_3   A library for inspecting program's backtrace
libffi-3.0.13       Foreign Function Interface
libgcrypt-1.5.3     General purpose crypto library based on code used in GnuPG
libgpg-error-1.12   Common error values for all GnuPG components
libiconv-1.14_1     A character set conversion library
libidn-1.28_1       Internationalized Domain Names command line tool
libltdl-2.4.2_2     System independent dlopen wrapper
libmcrypt-2.5.8     Multi-cipher cryptographic library (used in PHP)
libmcrypt-2.5.8_1   Multi-cipher cryptographic library (used in PHP)
libnet10-1.0.2a_5,1 A C library for creating IP packets
libpthread-stubs-0.3_4 This library provides weak aliases for pthread functions
libpthread-stubs-0.3_5 This library provides weak aliases for pthread functions
libsigsegv-2.10     Handling page faults in user mode
libssh2-1.4.3_1,2   Library implementing the SSH2 protocol
libtool-2.4.2_2     Generic shared library support script
libxcb-1.9.1_1      The X protocol C-language Binding (XCB) library
libxml2-2.8.0_3     XML parser library for GNOME
libxslt-1.1.28_1    The XSLT C library for GNOME
libyaml-0.1.4_2     A YAML 1.1 parser and emitter written in C
lighttpd-1.4.33     Secure, fast, compliant, and flexible Web Server
lsof-4.88.e_1,8     Lists information about open files (similar to fstat(1))
lsof-4.88.g,8       Lists information about open files (similar to fstat(1))
lynx-,1      Non-graphical, text-based World-Wide Web client
m4-1.4.17,1         GNU m4
mc-4.8.10           Midnight Commander, a free Norton Commander Clone
mtr-nox11-0.85_1    Traceroute and ping in a single network diagnostic tool
mysql55-client-5.5.34 Multithreaded SQL database (client)
mysql55-server-5.5.34 Multithreaded SQL database (server)
ncdu-1.10           Ncurses du(1)
ncurses-5.9_3       Library for terminal-independent, full-screen output
net-snmp-5.7.2_3    An extendable SNMP implementation
oniguruma4-4.7.1    BSDL Regular Expressions library compatible with POSIX/GNU/
openipmi-2.0.19_2   Complex IPMI management software
p5-DBD-mysql-4.025  MySQL driver for the Perl5 Database Interface (DBI)
p5-DBI-1.630        The perl5 Database Interface.  Required for DBD::* modules
p5-Digest-HMAC-1.03 Perl5 interface to HMAC Message-Digest Algorithms
p5-IO-Socket-INET6-2.69 Perl module with object interface to AF_INET6 domain socket
p5-Locale-gettext-1.05_3 Message handling functions
p5-Net-DNS-0.73     Perl5 interface to the DNS resolver, and dynamic updates
p5-Socket6-0.25_1   IPv6 related part of the C socket.h defines and structure m
p5-XML-Parser-2.41_1 Perl extension interface to James Clark's XML parser, expat
p5-libxml-0.08      Collection of Perl5 modules for working with XML
patch-2.7_1         GNU patch utility
pcre-8.33           Perl Compatible Regular Expressions library
pcre-8.34_2         Perl Compatible Regular Expressions library
perl5-5.16.3_11     Practical Extraction and Report Language
perl5-5.16.3_2      Practical Extraction and Report Language
php5-5.4.23         PHP Scripting Language
php5-bcmath-5.4.23  The bcmath shared extension for php
php5-ctype-5.4.23   The ctype shared extension for php
php5-curl-5.4.23_1  The curl shared extension for php
php5-dom-5.4.23     The dom shared extension for php
php5-extensions-1.7 A "meta-port" to install PHP extensions
php5-filter-5.4.23  The filter shared extension for php
php5-gd-5.4.23      The gd shared extension for php
php5-gettext-5.4.23 The gettext shared extension for php
php5-hash-5.4.23    The hash shared extension for php
php5-iconv-5.4.23   The iconv shared extension for php
php5-json-5.4.23    The json shared extension for php
php5-mbstring-5.4.23 The mbstring shared extension for php
php5-mcrypt-5.4.23  The mcrypt shared extension for php
php5-mysql-5.4.23   The mysql shared extension for php
php5-mysqli-5.4.23  The mysqli shared extension for php
php5-pdo-5.4.23     The pdo shared extension for php
php5-pdo_sqlite-5.4.23 The pdo_sqlite shared extension for php
php5-phar-5.4.23    The phar shared extension for php
php5-posix-5.4.23   The posix shared extension for php
php5-session-5.4.23 The session shared extension for php
php5-simplexml-5.4.23 The simplexml shared extension for php
php5-snmp-5.4.23    The snmp shared extension for php
php5-soap-5.4.23    The soap shared extension for php
php5-sockets-5.4.23 The sockets shared extension for php
php5-sqlite3-5.4.23 The sqlite3 shared extension for php
php5-tokenizer-5.4.23 The tokenizer shared extension for php
php5-xml-5.4.23     The xml shared extension for php
php5-xmlreader-5.4.23 The xmlreader shared extension for php
php5-xmlwriter-5.4.23 The xmlwriter shared extension for php
pkg-1.1.4_1         New generation package manager
pkgconf-0.9.3       Utility to help to configure compiler and linker flags
png-1.5.17          Library for manipulating PNG images
popt-1.16           A getopt(3) like library with a number of enhancements, fro
portaudit-0.6.1     Checks installed ports against a list of security vulnerabi
portupgrade-,2 FreeBSD ports/packages administration and management tool s
printproto-1.0.5    Print extension headers
procmail-3.22_7     Local mail delivery agent
py27-tkinter-2.7.6_4 Python bindings to the Tk widget set
python-2.7_1,2      The "meta-port" for the default version of Python interpret
python2-2_1         The "meta-port" for version 2 of the Python interpreter
python27-2.7.6_1    Interpreted object-oriented programming language
qpress-1.1          Portable file archiver using QuickLZ
quilt-0.60          A collection of bash scripts to ease working with patch fil
renderproto-0.11.1  RenderProto protocol headers
ripe-whois-3.2.2    The RIPE whois client version 3
ruby-,1    An object-oriented interpreted scripting language
ruby19-bdb-0.6.6_1  Ruby interface to Oracle Berkeley DB revision 2 or later
scons-2.3.0         Build tool alternative to make
scrnsaverproto-1.2.2 ScrnSaver extension headers
sendEmail-1.56_2    Lightweight, completely command line based, SMTP email agen
serf-1.3.2_1        Serf HTTP client library
spawn-fcgi-1.6.3    spawn-fcgi is used to spawn fastcgi applications
spawn-fcgi-1.6.4    Spawns fastcgi applications
sqlite3-     SQL database engine in a C library
subversion-1.8.5    Version control system
sudo-1.8.8          Allow others to run commands as root
sysinfo-1.0.1       Utility used to gather system configuration information
t1lib-5.1.2_2,1     Type 1 font rasterization library for Unix/X11
tcl86-8.6.1         Tool Command Language
tcping-1.3.5        Do a TCP connect to the given IP/port combination
tcpshow-1.74_1      Decode tcpdump(1) output
tcptraceroute-1.4_2 Traceroute implementation using TCP packets
tix-8.4.3_1         An extension to the Tk toolkit
tk86-8.6.1          Graphical toolkit for Tcl
trafshow-5.2.3_2,1  Full screen visualization of network traffic
unzip-6.0_1         List, test, and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive
wget-1.14_2         Retrieve files from the Net via HTTP(S) and FTP
whowatch-1.4_1      Displays information in real time about users currently log
xcb-proto-1.8       The X protocol C-language Binding (XCB) protocol
xcmiscproto-1.2.2   XCMisc extension headers
xextproto-7.2.1     XExt extension headers
xf86bigfontproto-1.2.0 XFree86-Bigfont extension headers
xorg-macros-1.17.1  X.Org development aclocal macros
xproto-7.0.24       X11 protocol headers
xtrabackup-2.1.4    OpenSource version of InnoDB backup with support of Percona
xtrans-1.2.7        Abstract network code for X
26) cleanup folder by crontab
# delete zabbix backups older than 120 days
17       5       *       *       *      root   find /usr/BACKUPS -type f -mtime +120d -delete > /dev/null 2>&1

17       5       *       *       *      root   find /backup/BACKUPS -type f -mtime +30 -delete > /dev/null 2>&1

27) After Freebsd 9.0 - > upgrade to 10.1 was neede to fix some issues:
pkgdb -Ff   
portmaster -o lang/perl5.12
portmaster -o lang/perl5.14
portupgrade -f 'p5-*'
#portmaster net-mgmt/mrtg

99) ...future